Traditional Educational Institutions in Child Education in Sierra Leone


Sierra Leone is limited on the north-west, north and north-east by the Republic Guinea, on the south-east by the Republic of Liberia and on south-west by the Atlantic Sea. It has a territory of 27,925 square miles. The province of Sierra Leone began in the deal and cession in 1787 by local boss to English pilgrims of a land parcel planned as a home for African pioneers who were starving strays in London and later it was utilized as a settlement for liberated African slaves. The hinterland was pronounced an English Protectorate on 21st August, 1896. Sierra Leone accomplished freedom on 27th April, 1961 and turned into a Republic in 1971. Instruction is given by both private and state-supported schools. The present arrangement of instruction is 6-3-4-4 (that is six years Elementary school, three years Junior Optional School, four years Senior Auxiliary School and four years tertiary/advanced education. This framework is supplemented by non-formal instruction.

Idea OF Training

Training is regularly utilized as a part of the feeling of guideline in the classroom, research facility, workshop or local science room and comprises primarily in the bestowing by the educator, and the procurement by students, of data and mental and also manual abilities. A more extensive importance than direction is that of tutoring. In other words all that goes ahead inside the school as a component of the understudy's life there. It incorporates, in addition to other things, connection amongst understudies and educators, students and understudies both in and outside the school. J. S. Factory (1931) opined that whatever shapes the person; to make the individual what he is or impede him from being what he isn't is a piece of his training. Verifiably instruction is long lasting and universal; it is the entirety of all impacts which go to make a man what he is, from birth to death. It incorporates the home, our neighbors, and the road among others.

Instruction is to some degree a think arranged process conceived and led by the instructor with the reason for saturating the student with certain data, aptitudes, of psyche and body and in addition methods of conduct thought about alluring. To some extent it is the student's own particular reaction to nature in which he lives. Instruction has three central focuses: the individual/individual upon whom the instructor's persuasions are conveyed to tolerate; the general public or group to which he has a place; and the entire setting of reality inside which the individual and society have their influence. Man is a social animal; he develops as a man through the effect of identity on identity; and notwithstanding for his essential physical needs he relies upon the assistance and participation of his kindred people. Without society and the common help and advancement of encounters which it gives development is incomprehensible and the life of man, in Hobbes' words, is "single, poor, awful, brutish and short."

One of the essential certainties of human presence is the strain between the draw of the past and the forward inclination into the future, amongst dependability and change, custom and development. For powerful living,man needs a hover of security, a territory of set up propensities and relationship which frames trustworthy connections. This is likewise valid for society. For its powerful working there must be a fundamental coherence of customs and standpoint which protects its way of life as a general public and shields it against the problematic impacts of progress. Change must be forever and not static but rather this adjustment thus should be controlled by the essential conventions of society. It is custom which gives a country its character and uniqueness as a general public. The preservation of custom consequently is clearly pivotal.

It has been perceived from time immemorial that the protection of conventional instruction has a crucial part to play in the improvement of the kid. The offspring of today are the grown-ups of tomorrow; they should be prepared consequently, to acquire and sustain the convictions and methods of life impossible to miss to the specific culture to which they have a place. For each general public wants to safeguard itself physically as well as group deliberately sharing certain points, beliefs and examples of conduct. This sort of training isn't really formal in schools by methods for classroom direction however that affected in a roundabout way through the family and through the effect on the person of social impacts and traditions which the youngster can't dodge. In Sierra Leone this social instruction included expound services of start including accomplishments of continuance in which young fellows and ladies must substantiate themselves deserving of the group. A definitive objective was to deliver a person who was straightforward, aware, talented, helpful, and who could adjust to the social request of the day. As Aristotle once expressed "the constitution of a state will endure if instruction is dismissed. The nationals of a state ought to dependably be taught to suit the constitution of the state. The sort of character fitting to a constitution is the power which keeps on maintaining it as it is likewise the state constrain which initially made it" (p. I).

Conventional Training In the public eye

Conventional training has both an imaginative and preservation work in the public arena; it is a capable methods for protecting a general public's traditions, if not culture. In the past the nature and necessities of society had an imperative impact in deciding the idea of instruction. Teacher M.V.C. Jeffreys (1950) once wrote in his book, Glaucon, that "in a peaceful society the instructive framework will have a tendency to mirror the social example, while social uneasiness and insecurity make open door for utilizing training as an instrument of social change"(p.7). A comparative view was shared by John Dewey (1897) who opined that through instruction society can plan its own motivations, can arrange its own particular means and assets and along these lines spare itself with definiteness and economy toward the path in which it wishes to move. Instruction looks both to the past and the future; definitely it mirrors the conventions and character of society. Customary training can be utilized to plan for changes in the public eye and envision and avoid changes or the impacts of changes in the public arena.

Conventional instruction monitors and hands on the traditions and lifestyles which constitute the character of a general public and keeps up its solidarity. It additionally encourages society to translate its capacities in better approaches to address the difficulties of progress, looking for ways or lines of improvement which are steady with the conventions and traditions and will in the meantime raise society to a more total satisfaction of itself.

Customary Instructive Foundations IN SIERRA LEONE

History uncovers that there were no formal schools where youngsters were taught in Pre-pilgrim Sierra Leone. The Poro and Bondo/Sande Mystery Social orders were viewed as establishments to prepare kids. They were bramble schools. Furthermore, the instruction these shrubbery schools gave was casual. Kids who experienced these mystery social orders were viewed as fit for completing their community obligations. They progressed toward becoming grown-ups and can wed and begin life. They thought about themselves as one family. As it were both Mystery Social orders made a feeling of comradeship and solidarity among individuals independent of family, faction or ethnic association. It was consequently viewed as that kids who had not experienced these mystery social orders were not completely developed.

The Poro Mystery Society is for young men. The profound leader of the Poro Society is Dad Gbonu, seen just by the more established graduates or individuals. The physical heads are the Dad Sama Yorgbors and Dad Somanos. They coordinate the exercises of the foundation. The senior educators are the Dad Kashis, who for the most part instruct and offer directions to different initiators. The Dad Manchiyas fill in as instructors to the starts while the Kachemas are the frightening spirits. They startle the ladies and youngsters alike together with the new starts. The Rakas are the errand young men bearing messages. The Yambas are the head young men. The Bomos are the senior officials while the Sayboms are the administrators; and the screens are the Gbanaboms. Casual classes are held in the Mystery Poro Hedge. The subjects educated incorporate Imaginative Down to earth Expressions, Performing Expressions, Functional Farming, Prescription i.e. utilization of neighborhood herbs for the treatment of various infirmities), fighting and different abilities. In Innovative Handy Expressions starts are instructed how to make angling nets, crates, tangles, and cutting wood and cleanser stones into various questions, for example, creatures and people; in Performing Expressions starts are shown singing, moving and the utilization of Poro melodic instruments. In Down to earth Horticulture starts work on cultivating. Young men are educated to tolerate hardship without protestation and become acclimated with it. In this manner they are taken to the ranches of their instructors and older folks to take a shot at star bono premise. Anyway amid the reap season starts could go through these homesteads taking whatever they require and eat without being addressed by cultivate proprietors. Starts are instructed to regard older folks and utilization of weapons to murder creatures. In a comparative vein starts are instructed how to utilize weapons in battling with regards to their groups. Different abilities starts are educated incorporate making fish traps, angling and chasing net, and basketry. In the utilization of herbs starts pay cash (some openly given) for recuperating different ailments and in addition for assurance against foes, malicious spirits and snake chomps. Starts who need to make hurt others utilizing herbs could 'recover' the herb/solution concerned. Over all starts are educated another Dialect talked just by individuals called Ke Sornor. For instance fonka trika meaning I am conversing with you; fonka bonomi importance Converse with me. The utilization of this new Dialect makes graduates extremely glad and feel unique in relation to non-starts. Graduates turn out with new names, for example, Light, Langba and Kolerr. A graduation service peaks the occasion.

Guardians make enormous arrangements including sewing dresses for the graduates. To stamp the graduation function there is devouring, drinking, moving and singing commendation melodies for the graduates and their folks. Those fit the bill for start more likely than not been circumcised and developed to time of adolescence. They need to live alone amid the time of preparing which ranges from one to seven years. Graduates are completely admitted to the general Poro society through another service called Enkorie, which goes on for four days.

The Bondo/Sande Society is where young ladies are prepared for womanhood. Its profound head is Na Bondigba. The Na Gboyamas and Na Wulus are the physical heads. These have otherworldly powers used to foresee the future and catch witches. They are the senior educators. The Na Sokos are the administration instructors. They can start young ladies even up to the propelled phase of the General public. The Digbas are the general educators and remain nearby to the starts. The Sampas are the capable artists and errand young ladies/ladies. They gain declarations about the ground and exercises or projects amid the graduation service.

The Na Fets, as the name infers don't have the foggiest idea about all the mystery of the foundation. They convey the institutional executes and formal attire. The Karr Ayeamus are the 'servers' to be started into the higher status of the organization. Young ladies admitted to the Bondo/Sande Society are prepared casually. Classes are held at Kantha or consecrated home. The instructors are generally worried about the transmission to these juvenile young ladies the abilities and information which grown-up ladies are required to have keeping in mind the end goal to work appropriately and brilliantly in their locale. The subjects young ladies are instructed incorporate Cooking, Performing Expressions, Angling, Spouse and Kid Care, and Home Administration. In Cooking young ladies are instructed how to get ready sustenance through perception and support in the readiness of different dishes and are later permitted to have a run with next to zero supervision. The individuals who couldn't cook legitimately are permitted to rehash. In Performing Expressions young ladies are instructed how to create and sing tunes and how to beat the Bondo/Sande drums (sambories). Close by singing young ladies are instructed how to move and the individuals who move well may join the chain of importance of the Sampas. Young ladies are additionally instructed how to angling, make angling nets, angling crates, resting mats from bamboo and palm takes off. Assist young ladies are instructed how to encourage their planned spouses and how to deal with kids particularly those of senior individuals. Like the Poro Society graduation functions are set apart by huge arrangements. The two guardians and forthcoming spouses would purchase new dresses, shoes, fragrances, powder, and dots to make neck bands. Upon the arrival of the graduation function the new starts are showed in white with coronets. They turn out with new names, for example, Burah, Yeanor, Rukor and Yainkain. This shows an indication of development. Starting young ladies into Bondo/Sande society endures between a couple of months and three years.


On the off chance that instruction has the crucial capacity of propagating the conventions and estimations of society, of adjusting them to an evolving domain, and of raising them to wealthier and more productive articulation then both the Poro and Bondo/Sande Mystery Social orders, as customary operators of this procedure ought to appreciate a place of the most astounding regard. Through these mystery social orders the country's way of life streams from one age to the next and the goals of society are engaged with cozy and telling influence upon the youthful. They remain at a point where the energies of kids are discharged into new and inventive conceivable outcomes. Through these mystery social orders youngsters recall the past exercises of their antecedents. They help in conduct preparing examples of society. These social orders are organizations of motivation and the two government officials and boss utilize them to advantage. That is to either pick up or look after power. Major and restricting choices are taken in the Poro Shrub of which just individuals are permitted to go to and partake. The Poro Mystery Society goes about as a check against the mishandle of energy. In emergency ridden circumstances significant choice are taken in the Poro Hedge. The Poro society even goes about as authority in chiefdom debate and could proclaim general laws and manage exchanging rehearses. It is likewise associated with the internment of boss and other vital neighborhood authorities (Alie, 1990).

Western instruction has existed in the nation for long and is currently so basic piece of the edified life that there is an inclination to accept that it is the fundamental or sole methods for granting aptitudes, information and social qualities in kids. This isn't the situation in Sierra Leone. The significance of the Poro and Bondo conventional mystery social orders can't be over-located as a result of their colossal possibility in instructing youngsters for life in the public arena. Crucial is that regard for people as people is the premise of customary society. Connected with this is kindness, affectability to the requirements of others, helpfulness, self-restraint, moral and physical bravery, diligent work and exclusive requirements of accomplishment. These are passed on to kids in the earth in which they are a piece of their day by day encounters. In any case, these customary organizations as specialists of instruction are as of now looked with numerous difficulties there-by driving their downfall. The act of female genital circumcision is of universal concern and in Sierra Leone individuals are unsettling for its aggregate boycott. As of now young ladies are permitted to be circumcised at age eighteen amid which time a kid is seen to be sufficiently developed to pick regardless of whether to be started into the Bondo/Sande mystery society. What's more the time of start is seen too long and is being tested. Other than youngsters nowadays never again must be started into these social orders to be instructed how to be spotless, cook, raise kids, hone horticulture, and teach ethics and excellencies to refer to a couple of illustrations. All these could be learnt either in or outside formal tutoring through perusing. What is more Religion, particularly Christianity and Islam, western life, and additionally provincial urban relocation are constraining these mystery social orders to pulverization.

Other than the exercises and work of these customary social orders are not in educational programs shape and recorded. Neither additionally is the utilization of herbs reported. In this manner by stopping these customary mystery social orders Sierra Leoneans remain to lose their social legacy. Assuming in any case, instruction has the indispensable capacity of sustaining the customs and estimations of society, of adjusting them to an evolving situation, and of raising them to a wealthier and more productive articulation then these conventional mystery social orders, as specialists of this procedure ought to appreciate a place of the most noteworthy regard. Through these social orders the national culture streams starting with one age then onto the next and the goals of society are engaged with close and telling influence upon the youthful. These mystery social orders remain at the point where the energies of kids are discharged into new and inventive potential outcomes.

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